Friday, June 5, 2009
magnetic resonance (MR) techniques
This review presents an overview of some recent magnetic resonance (MR) techniques for pharmaceutical research. MR is noninvasive, and does not expose subjects to ionizing radiation. Some methods that have been used in pharmaceutical research MR include magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods, among them, diffusion-weighted MRI, perfusion-weighted MRI, functional MRI, molecular imaging and contrast-enhance MRI. Some applications of MR in pharmaceutical research include MR in metabonomics, in vivo MRS, studies in cerebral ischemia and infarction, degenerative joint diseases, oncology, cardiovascular disorders, respiratory diseases and skin diseases. Some of these techniques, such as cardiac and joint imaging, or brain fMRI are standard, and are providing relevant data routinely. Skin MR and hyperpolarized gas lung MRI are still experimental. In conclusion, considering the importance of finding and characterizing biomarkers for improved drug evaluation, it can be expected that the use of MR techniques in pharmaceutical research is going to increase in the near future.